Exercício de Inglês (Questões ITA 2022) com Gabarito

ITA

Exercício de Inglês (Questões ITA 2022) com Gabarito

INGLÊS

Leia o texto destacado para responder às questões 31 e 32.

Stupidity permeates our perception and practice of politics. We frequently accuse politicians. bureaucrats, journalists, voters. “elites” and ‘‘the masses” for their stupidities. In fact, it is not only “populist politicians”, ‘sensational journalism,” and “uneducated voters” who are accused of stupidity. Similar accusations can be, and in fact have been, made concerning those who criticize them as well. It seems that stupidity is ubiquitous, unable to be contained within or attributed to one specific political position, personal trait, or even ignorance and erroneous reasoning. Undertaking a theoretical investigation of stupidity, Nabutaka Otobe challenges the assumption that stupidity can he avoided. The author argues that the very ubiquity of stupidity implies its unavoidability – that we cannot contain it in such domains as error, ignorance, or ‘‘post-truth.” What we witness is rather that one’s reasoning can be sound, evidence-based, and stupid. In revealing this unavoidahility, he contends that stupidity is an ineluctable problem not only of politics, but also of thinking. We become stupid because we think: it is impossible to distinguish a priori stupid thought from upright, righteous thought. Moreover, the failure to address the unavoidability of stupidity leads political theory to the failure to acknowledge the productive moments that experiences of stupidity harbor within. Such productive moments constitute the potential of stupidity – that radical new ideas can emerge out of our seemingly banal and stupid thinking in our daily’ political activity.
Fonte: https://www.routledge.com/. 
Publicado em 12/10/2020. Acesso em 20/08/2021.

ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 31
De acordo com o texto, não é correto afirmar que

a) em nossa prática política diária, novas ideias radicais podem surgir de um pensamento aparentemente banal e estúpido.

b) o fracasso em considerarmos que a estupidez é inevitável nos conduz a outro malogro.

c) a ubiquidade da estupidez implica em sua evitabilidade.

d) a estupidez não pode ser contida em domínios como ignorância, erro ou pós-verdade.

e) a estupidez é um problema do pensamento do qual não podemos escapar. .


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 32
O termo “moreover”, destacado com itálico no excerto do segundo parágrafo. “Moreover”, the failure to address the unavoidability of stupidity leads political theory to the failure”, pode ser substituído, sem prejuízo de significado, por

a) furthermore.
b) although. 
c) nevertheless. 
d) unlikely.
e) even though.


Leia o texto destacado para responder às questões 33 e 34.

Jaap Wagelaar was my all-time favorite secondary school teacher. He gave me a 10/10 for my oral Dutch literature exam, taught psychoanalysis during grammar class, astounded pupils with odd puppet show performances during lunch breaks and sadly ended his career with a burn-out. Few students and fellow teachers understood him. But since I trusted his judgment like nobody else’s, I once asked him why Piet Paaltjens and Gerard Reve, both canonized Dutch literary figures, albeit of very divergent genres, could occasionally be kind or ironic but were more often rather cynical, cold and heartless. The response he gave has stuck with me ever since: cynical people are in fact the most emotional ones. Because of their sentimentality they are unable to handle injustice and feel forced to build up a self-protective screen against painfid emotions called cynicism. Irony is mild. harmless and green. Sarcasm is biting and represents an orange traffic light. And the color of cynicism is deep red, with the shape of a grim scar that hides a hurt soul. They are all equally beautiful.

These words again came to my mind when thinking back on the dozens of ironic, sarcastic and cynical memes about underperforming politicians and policy scandals disseminated over the past year. Who has not seen the image of Donald Trump walking through a desolate, scorched forest mumbling to himself: ‘My work here is almost done’? Who has not read the scathing reports of Flemish Ministers Bart Somers and Hilde Crevits escaping from a window aided by an unidentified third person after a meeting of the Council of Ministers to avoid critical journalists with the defense that they urgently needed to go on holiday and windows are faster than doors? Who has not come across the video announcement for a fictitious thriller called Angstra Zeneca with Dutch Health Minister Hugo de Jonge exclaiming ‘ik heb er zo’n kankerbende van gemaakt’ (I have made it all a cancerous mess) with a grimace stretching from ear to ear? And who has missed the most recent true story tragicomedy played by Charles Michel. male President of the European Council, and Ursula von der Leyen, female President of the European Commission, who had jointly been invited by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to discuss the position of women in Turkey? Unfortunately, they were only offered one chair for two people, which was symbolically occupied by Michel who left Von der Leyen standing awkwardly for a white. She ended up settling for a place on the comfortable sofa reserved for second rank guests. It was damned easy to get addicted to these countless videos, photos, images and written parodies. Oh. did we have fun with them! Some were ironic, some sarcastic and others cynical, but they jointly sketch a disconcerting image of the quality and reputation of key politicians in liberal Western democracies.
Fonte: https: //www.eur.nl/en/news/. Publicado em 16/04/2021. 
Acesso em 29/08/21. Adaptado.

ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 33
O termo “albeit”, destacado em itálico no excerto do primeiro parágrafo, “both canonized Dutch literary figures albeit of very divergent genres”. tem sentido equivalente a

a) meanwhile. 
b) despite. 
c) whereas. 
d) indeed.
e) through.


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 34
Em um encontro para discurtir a posição da mulher, o anfitrião

a) convidou dois representantes homens.

b) não deu oportunidade de voz a uma representante mulher.

c) relegou a representante mulher a um assento secundário.

d) não cumprimentou a representante mulher.

e) ficou constrangido com a falha na organização do evento.


Leia o texto destacado para responder às questões 35 a 37.

In a new survey of North American Indian languages. Marianne Mithun gives an admirably clear statement of what is lost as each language ceases to he used. “Speakers of these languages and their descendants are acutely aware of what it can mean to lose a language,” she begins — and this is perfectly true, although these speakers must have taken the decision themselves not to teach the language to their children. It happens all too often — people regret that their language and culture are being lost but at the same time decide not to saddle their own children with the chore of preserving them.

When a language disappears [Mithun continues] the most intimate aspects of culture can disappear as well: fundamental ways of organizing experience into concepts. of relating ideas to each other. of interacting to people. The more conscious genres of verbal art are usually lost as well: traditional ritual. oratory. myth. legends. and even humor. Speakers commonly remark that when they speak a different language, they say different things and even think different thoughts.

These are very interesting assertions. They slip by in a book on anthropological linguistics, where in a book on linguistic theory they would be highly contentious. Is it true that ‘‘fundamental ways of organizing experience into concepts [and] of relating ideas to each other” are specific to individual languages and are therefore likely to be lost when a language ceases to be used? Is it true that when speakers speak a different language, they “say different things and even think different thoughts”? Again, the extent to which thought depends on language is very controversial. These questions must he now faced, because only when we have reached an opinion on them will we be able to accept or reject Marianne Mithun’s conclusion: “The loss of a language represents a definitive separation of a people from its heritage. It also represents an irreparable loss for us all, the loss of opportunities to glimpse alternative ways of making sense of the human experience.”
Fonte: Dalby, Andrew. Language in danger. New York: Columbia
University Press. 2003, p. 252; 285. Adaptado.

ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 35
De acordo com a linguista Marianne Mithun

a) os indivíduos falantes de linguas nativas e seus descendentes não têm absoluta clareza do que perder uma língua pode significar.

b) indivíduos nativos lamentam a perda de sua língua e cultura, mas não querem sobrecarregar seus filhos com a responsabilidade de preservá-las.

c) antes da extinção de uma língua, aspectos da cultura correspondente já haviam desaparecido.

d) teorias linguísticas afirmam que o desaparecimento de línguas nativas é altamente controverso.

e) a decisão de povos originários e seus descendentes ao abandonar suas línguas nativas tem motivação econômica.


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 36
O termo ‘‘must”, destacado em itálico no excerto do segundo parágrafo. “These questions must be now faced”, pode ser substituído, sem alteração de significado, por

a) could. 
b) might. 
c) ought to.
d) used to.
e) had to.


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 37
De acordo com o texto, é correto afirmar que com o desaparecimento de uma língua, aspectos dessa cultura também estão fadados ao desaparecimento, exceto

a) a interação entre indivíduos do grupo.

b) formas de expressar experiências vividas em conceitos.

c) estabelecimento do relações entre ideias.

d) suns práticas econômicas baseadas em escambo.

e) a tradição oral de seus mitos e lendas.


Leia o texto destacado para responder às questões de 38 a 40.

Meritocracy has become a leading social ideal. Politicians across the ideological spectrum continually return to the theme that the rewards of life — money, power, jobs, university admission — should be distributed according to skill and effort. The most common metaphor is the ‘even playing field’ upon which players can rise to the position that fits their merit. Conceptually and morally, meritocracy is presented as the opposite of systems such as hereditary aristocracy, in which one’s social position is determined by the lottery of birth. Under meritocracy, wealth and advantage are merit’s rightful compensation, not the fortuitous windfall of external events. And most people don’t just think the world should be run meritocratically, they think it is meritocratic. However, although widely held, the belief that merit rather than luck determines success or failure in the world is demonstrably false. This is not least because merit itself is, in large part, the result of luck. Talent and the capacity for determined effort, sometimes called ‘grit’, depend a great deal on one’s genetic endowments and upbringing.

Perhaps more disturbing, simply holding meritocracy as a value seems to promote discriminatory behaviour. The management scholar Emilio Castilla at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the sociologist Stephen Benard at Indiana University studied attempts to implement, meritocratic practices, such as performancebased compensation in private companies. They found that, in companies that, explicitly held meritocracy as a core value, managers assigned greater rewards to male employees over female employees with identical performance evaluations. This preference disappeared where meritocracy was not explicitly adopted as a value. This is surprising because impartiality is the core of meritocracy’s moral appeal. The ‘even playing field’ is intended to avoid unfair inequalities based on gender, race and the like. Yet Castilla aud Benard found that, ironically, attempts to implement meritocracy leads to just the kinds of inequalities that it aims to eliminate. They suggest that this ‘paradox of meritocracy’ occurs because explicitly adopting meritocracy as a value convinces subjects of their own morat sincerity. Satisfied that they are just, they become less inclined to examine their own behaviour for signs of prejudice.

As with any ideology, part of its draw is that it justifies the status quo, explaining why people belong where they happen to be in the social order. It is a well-established psychological principle that people prefer to believe that the world is just.
Fonte: https: //bigthink.corn/. Publicado em 23/03/2019. 
Acesso em 20/05/2021. Adaptado.

ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 38
According to the first paragraph, one of the supporting arguments for meritocracy is:

a) since meritocracy resembles the species selection process, it has a biological nature.

b) effort and developed ability will he rewarded, so meritocracy is an unbiased ideological ideal.

c) meritocracy is based on the concept of self-made fortunate man.

d) skill and effort are determined by fortuitous opportunities that should be identified.

e) heredity should play a decisive part for a successful outcome.


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 39
According to the third and fourth paragraphs, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Indiana University found that meritocracy

a) should be adopted in organizations in a transparent way.

b) has the potential to be transformed into a fair assessment tool in companies.

c) could eliminate inequalities and prejudice against minorities if well conducted.

d) is surprising because it provides a social ‘even playing field’.

e) is self-contradictory since it reinforces the inequalities it is supposed to eradicate.


ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 40
De acordo com o quarto parágrafo a meritocracia promove

a) o conformismo social.

b) a mobilidade social.

c) a justiça social.

d) a crença em um mundo mclhor.

e) a inquietação psicológica.


COMENTÁRIOS

Nome

Enade,18,Enem,2,Exercícios,81,Exercícios de Alemão,1,Exercícios de Biologia,4,Exercícios de Ciências,2,Exercícios de Ciências da Natureza,1,Exercícios de Ciências Humanas,1,Exercícios de Educação Infantil,2,Exercícios de Espanhol,3,Exercícios de Filosofia,2,Exercícios de Física,6,Exercícios de Francês,2,Exercícios de Geografia,10,Exercícios de História,7,Exercícios de Inglês,5,Exercícios de Italiano,1,Exercícios de Linguagens,1,Exercícios de Literatura,3,Exercícios de Matemática,11,Exercícios de Português,8,Exercícios de Química,6,Exercícios de Redação,1,Exercícios de Sociologia,4,Questões,957,Questões de Biologia,32,Questões de Ciências,30,Questões de Ciências da Natureza,75,Questões de Ciências Humanas,75,Questões de Espanhol,39,Questões de Física,25,Questões de Geografia,28,Questões de História,27,Questões de Inglês,29,Questões de Linguagens,70,Questões de Literatura,12,Questões de Matemática,179,Questões de Português,124,Questões de Química,27,Questões de Redação,4,Questões de Sociologia,20,Questões do Enade,165,Questões do Enem,185,
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