According to the third and fourth paragraphs, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Indiana University

Leia o texto destacado para responder às questões de 38 a 40.

Meritocracy has become a leading social ideal. Politicians across the ideological spectrum continually return to the theme that the rewards of life — money, power, jobs, university admission — should be distributed according to skill and effort. The most common metaphor is the ‘even playing field’ upon which players can rise to the position that fits their merit. Conceptually and morally, meritocracy is presented as the opposite of systems such as hereditary aristocracy, in which one’s social position is determined by the lottery of birth. Under meritocracy, wealth and advantage are merit’s rightful compensation, not the fortuitous windfall of external events. And most people don’t just think the world should be run meritocratically, they think it is meritocratic. However, although widely held, the belief that merit rather than luck determines success or failure in the world is demonstrably false. This is not least because merit itself is, in large part, the result of luck. Talent and the capacity for determined effort, sometimes called ‘grit’, depend a great deal on one’s genetic endowments and upbringing.

Perhaps more disturbing, simply holding meritocracy as a value seems to promote discriminatory behaviour. The management scholar Emilio Castilla at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the sociologist Stephen Benard at Indiana University studied attempts to implement, meritocratic practices, such as performancebased compensation in private companies. They found that, in companies that, explicitly held meritocracy as a core value, managers assigned greater rewards to male employees over female employees with identical performance evaluations. This preference disappeared where meritocracy was not explicitly adopted as a value. This is surprising because impartiality is the core of meritocracy’s moral appeal. The ‘even playing field’ is intended to avoid unfair inequalities based on gender, race and the like. Yet Castilla aud Benard found that, ironically, attempts to implement meritocracy leads to just the kinds of inequalities that it aims to eliminate. They suggest that this ‘paradox of meritocracy’ occurs because explicitly adopting meritocracy as a value convinces subjects of their own morat sincerity. Satisfied that they are just, they become less inclined to examine their own behaviour for signs of prejudice.

As with any ideology, part of its draw is that it justifies the status quo, explaining why people belong where they happen to be in the social order. It is a well-established psychological principle that people prefer to believe that the world is just.
Fonte: https: //bigthink.corn/. Publicado em 23/03/2019. 
Acesso em 20/05/2021. Adaptado.

ITA 2022 - QUESTÃO 39
According to the third and fourth paragraphs, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Indiana University found that meritocracy

a) should be adopted in organizations in a transparent way.

b) has the potential to be transformed into a fair assessment tool in companies.

c) could eliminate inequalities and prejudice against minorities if well conducted.

d) is surprising because it provides a social ‘even playing field’.

e) is self-contradictory since it reinforces the inequalities it is supposed to eradicate.

QUESTÃO ANTERIOR:

RESOLUÇÃO:
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GABARITO:
e) is self-contradictory since it reinforces the inequalities it is supposed to eradicate.

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Enade,9,Enem,2,Exercícios,81,Exercícios de Alemão,1,Exercícios de Biologia,4,Exercícios de Ciências,2,Exercícios de Ciências da Natureza,1,Exercícios de Ciências Humanas,1,Exercícios de Educação Infantil,2,Exercícios de Espanhol,3,Exercícios de Filosofia,2,Exercícios de Física,6,Exercícios de Francês,2,Exercícios de Geografia,10,Exercícios de História,7,Exercícios de Inglês,5,Exercícios de Italiano,1,Exercícios de Linguagens,1,Exercícios de Literatura,3,Exercícios de Matemática,11,Exercícios de Português,8,Exercícios de Química,6,Exercícios de Redação,1,Exercícios de Sociologia,4,Questões,809,Questões de Biologia,32,Questões de Ciências,30,Questões de Ciências da Natureza,30,Questões de Ciências Humanas,75,Questões de Espanhol,39,Questões de Física,25,Questões de Geografia,28,Questões de História,27,Questões de Inglês,29,Questões de Linguagens,70,Questões de Literatura,12,Questões de Matemática,134,Questões de Português,124,Questões de Química,27,Questões de Redação,4,Questões de Sociologia,20,Questões do Enade,107,Questões do Enem,95,
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